The biggest feature of brushless DC motors is that they are maintenance-free. There are a number of differences from DC motors.
One of these differences is their small size. As shown in Fig. 2.29, a high-performance brushless DC motor accommodates high-performance magnets in a space smaller than that for the rotor of conventional DC motors.
Thanks to this space efficiency, the rotor has no magnets, allowing the corresponding space to be downsized.
A higher magnetic flux density provides higher motor efficiency and suppresses heat generation.
Among all the motor parts, the coil generates the greatest amount of heat. And since the coil of a DC motor is located inside the motor, it is enveloped by air in the motor, which prevents heat in the coil from dissipating. In comparison, since the coil of a brushless motor is positioned on the stator side, the motor's heat radiation performance is enhanced.
The decisive advantage of brushless motors is their high degree of freedom of design.
For instance, you can design a flat rotor, place the rotor in the outer part of the motor, or choose an elongated shape depending on how the motor is to be used.